Learning our Deen (Islam)

December 12, 2008

Al Huda Islamic Channel Live Online

Filed under: General — Tags: , , — Um Abdullah M. @ 8:52 am

 

 

 

http://www.huda.tv/streaming.html

 

 

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November 6, 2008

The Meaning of Tawassul and Waseelah

Filed under: Beginner, General, Ibadah - worship, Quran, tafsir — Tags: , , , , , — Um Abdullah M. @ 5:20 pm

 

 The word Tawassul comes from the word “Al Wasila

Definition of Al Wasila

Al-Khalil bin Ahmad (100-170 H.) said in “al Ayn”:

Wassaltu to my Lord Wasilatan, means: I did a deed that by which I drew near to Him. And I did tawassul to someone by a book or a relative, means that I sought means of approach to him by it.

Labeed said:

‘I see that the people do not know the value of their affair,
where as every religious person seeks to draw nearer to Allaah.’

Isma’il bin Hammad al Jawhari (d. 393 H.) said in “As-Sihah fi Al-Lughah”:

Al Wasila: That by which one draws near to another”.

 

 

Al wasilah ” by this meaning is found in the Quran:

O you who believe! Fear Allah and seek al wasilah to Him. (5:35)

Its tafsir (interpretation) :

Tafsir Imam At-Tabari (d. 310 H.) He says: and seek nearness to Him by performing the acts that please Him.

Tafsir “Bahr al Uloom” by Abul Layth As-Simirqandi (d. 375 H.) It means: seek nearness and virtue by the good deeds.

Tafsir Ibn Kathir (d. 774 H.) : Ibn `Abbas said that Wasilah means `the means of approach’.
Mujahid, Abu Wa’il, Al-Hasan, Qatadah, `Abdullah bin Kathir, As-Suddi, Ibn Zayd and others gave the same meaning for Wasilah.

Qatadah said that the ayah means, “Seek the means of approach to Him by obeying Him and performing the acts that please Him.”

And there is no disagreement amongst the mufassireen on what those Imams said.

 

 

Thus the general meaning of Tawassul is to seek nearness to Allah through performing good deeds.
As for the specific meaning of Tawassul, it is to hope for and seek the answering of one’s duaa (supplication).

 

The Agreed Upon Types of Tawassul

 

.

October 6, 2008

Killing Mickey Mouse: Sheikh Munajjid Responds

Filed under: General — Tags: , — Um Abdullah M. @ 10:13 am

                         

 Shaikh Muhammad Salih al Munajjid responds to media propaganda regarding what he said about mickey mouse.

He responded by video in English, here are two different links for the video:

 

On youtubehttp://uk.youtube.com/watch?v=DZSz2zEMwZE

 

On Muslim video  websitehttp://www.muslimvideo.com/tv/watch/93129c383e8c4b0dadc8/Killing-Mickey-Mouse:-Sheikh-Al-Munajid-Responds

April 2, 2008

EVIDENCES FOR ABROGATION IN ISLAM (NASKH)

Filed under: General, Hadith-Hadeeth, Intermediate, Quran — Um Abdullah M. @ 9:42 am

EVIDENCES FOR ABROGATION (NASKH)

Written by brother Abu Hazim al Katib (from the Arabic multaqa of ahl al Hadith)
Translated by brothers: Ayman Khaled & Mahmoud al Misri (may Allah reward them both)
Slightly Edited by Um Abdullah M.

The issue of abrogation is agreed upon by scholars of Islam, it has been stated that it is a matter of consensus to which no one apposed except what was reported about Abu Muslim Al-Asfahani who belongs to Mu’tazilah sect. However, the majority of Mu’tazilah sect acknowledge the existence of abrogation, which is in agreement with the opinion of Ahlu Alsunnah and the people of the Qiblah, the Muslims.

Abrogation is proven by Quran, Sunnah, consensus and logic.

From The Quran:

1) Allah, the most High says: {Such of Our revelations as we abrogate or cause to be forgotten, we bring (in place) one better or the like thereof. Knowest thou not that Allah is Able to do all things?}[2:106]

Ibn Jarir Al-Tabari (d. 310 H.) said:
“Allah means with (Such of Our revelations as we abrogate): we abrogate the ruling of a verse by another to change and replace this ruling. This is by making Halal to become Haram and vice versa or to let what is permissible to become impermissible. Thus, abrogation is only concerned with matters of commands and rulings such like: permissibility and impermissibility, prohibition and Halal … etc. Therefore, previous nation’s news and stories have no abrogation…” [Tafsir Ibn jarir (jami’e Al-Bayan):1/521]

Ibn Kathir said as well:
“Ibn Abi Talha narrated Ibn Abbas saying: (Such of Our revelations as we abrogate) means: what we replace of verses.
Ibn Jarir reported from the way of Mujahid: This part means: the verses we erased” and Ibn Abi Najeh from the way of Mujhaid narrated Mujahid said: “we confirm the verse and its place in Quran but we replace its ruling. This is what the companions of Ibn Masoud narrated as well.” [Tafseer Ibn Katheer: 1/207]

Al-Qurtubi in his book “Al-Jamie’ Li Ahkam Al-Quran” while he was talking about the verse of abrogation:
“Having knowledge about this matter is needed and its benefit is great, to the extent that all scholars need to know about abrogation because only the ignorant would deny abrogation since abrogation is needed to know the rulings of what is Haram and halal” [Al-Jamie Li Ahkam Al-Quran: 2/61]

2) {And when we put a revelation in place of (another) revelation, and Allah knoweth best what He revealeth they say: Lo! thou art but inventing. Most of them know not.} [Al-Nahl: 101]

Ibn Jarir Al Tabari said:

“Allah the exalted says: We abrogate the ruling of a verse by replacing it with another ruling in another verse. In regards the part where it says {And Allah knoweth best what He revealeth}; Allah says there: what Allah abrogates and replaces is for the best of benefit to his creation as He knows the best. The part {revealeth they say: Lo! thou art but inventing} means: those, who associate someone with Allah in worshiping and disbelieving in the messenger, say to the messenger: O Muhammad you are inventing this which means that you claiming that Allah said that while he did not. So Allah replies to what they said: indeed, most of them are ignorant about the fact that what you –Muhammad- bring them i.e. abrogated verses and verses that abrogate another verse are all from Allah.

Scholars of interpretations said exactly as what we said about the above verse. And some of those who mentioned that are:

[..chain of narration..] Mujahid said about this verse: it means Allah lifts up a verse and replace it with another

[..chain of narration..] Mujahid said: Allah abrogates verses, replace them , lift them up and confirm another verse in abrogated verses.

[..chain of narration..] Qutada said: the context of the verse {. as we abrogate or cause to be forgotten,} is same as {we put a revelation in place of (another) revelation}.

[.. chain of narration ..] Ibn zaid said about the part where Allah says {we put a revelation in place of (another) revelation}: they; disbelievers, said to Muhammad you bring something then you say otherwise. So Allah says: this replacement is an abrogation because whenever a verse si replaced by another then it has to be an abrogation. [tafseer Ibn Jarir: Jamie AlBayan: 7/646] and for further readings: Ibn Katheer: 2/774] and AlJamie Li Ahkam AlQuran by Al Qurtubi: 10/157]

3) Abrogation took place in many verses in the Quran:

1. {(In the case of) those of you who are about to die and leave behind them wives, they should bequeath unto their wives a provision for the year without turning them out, but if they go out (of their own accord) there is no sin for you in that which they do of themselves within their rights. Allah is Mighty, Wise} has been abrogated by the verse {such of you as die and leave behind them wives, they (the wives) shall wait, keeping themselves apart, four months and ten days. And when they reach the term (prescribed for them) then there is no sin for you in aught that they may do with themselves in decency. Allah is Informed of what ye do}

2. {It is prescribed for you, when one of you approacheth death, if he leave wealth, that he bequeath unto parents and near relatives in kindness. (This is) a duty for all those who ward off (evil).} was abrogated by {Allah chargeth you concerning (the provision for) your children: to the male the equivalent of the portion of two females}

3. {Turn thy face toward the Inviolable Place of Worship, and ye (O Muslims), wheresoever ye may be, turn your faces when ye pray) toward it} abrogated the command of praying toward bait Al-Maqdis.

4. {O Prophet! Exhort the believers to fight. If there be of you twenty steadfast they shall overcome two hundred and if there be of you a hundred steadfast they shall overcome a thousand of those who disbelieve, because they (the disbelievers) are a folk without intelligence.} was abrogated by {Now. hath Allah lightened your burden, for He knoweth that there is weakness in you. So if there be of you a steadfast hundred they shall overcome two hundred, and if there be of you a thousand (steadfast) they shall overcome two thousand by permission of Allah. Allah is with the steadfast.}

5. {It is prescribed for you, when one of you approacheth death, if he leave wealth, that he bequeath unto parents and near relatives in kindness. (This is) a duty for all those who ward off (evil).} was abrogated with { Allah chargeth you concerning (the provision for) your children: to the male the equivalent of the portion of two females}

6. {And now verily We shall make thee turn (in prayer) toward a qiblah which is dear to thee. So turn thy face toward the Inviolable Place of Worship,} abrogated praying toward madqdis Masjid.

Scholars have written special books about abrogation in the Quran:
Al-Nasikh and Mansookh by Abu Ja’far Al-Nahhas
Al-Nasikh and Mansookh by Abu Ubaid Alqasim Bin Salam
Ma’rifat AlNasikh wa AlMansookh by Ibn Hazm
Al-Nasikh Wa Almansookh from the Quran by Hibat Allah al-Maqri
Nawasikh AlQuran by Ibn Al-Jawzi
Al-Nasikh Wa AlMansookh by Ibn Al-A’rabi
and many other books.

Thus, we can notice that this is a matter of consent by scholars about the existence of abrogation so that you never find a scholar who wrote about Quran Tafseer denying or even doubting abrogation except some recent ones who have no early scholar to agree with them.

Proofs from the Sunnah:

There are many traditions that indicate the occurrence of abrogation in the shari’ah. The Prophet might give an order, and then would say that it has been abrogated, or prohibits from something and then say that it had been abrogated.

Many books had also been authored that speak about this [matter], which indicates the belief of the People of Hadith, Fiqh, and Usool in this matter, and from the books that were authored:

– “Al-I’tibar fee Al-Nasikh wa Al-Mansookh min Al-Athaar” by Al-Hazimi
– “Nasikh Al-Hadith wa Mansookhuh” by ibn Shaheen
– “Rusookh Al-Akhbar fee Mansookh Al-Akhbar” by Al-Ja’bari,
– “A’lam Al-‘Alam ba’d Rusookhih behaqaiq Nasikh al-Hadith wa Mansoukhih” by Ibn Al-Jawzi
“Ikhbar Ahl Al-Rusookh fe Al-Fiqh wa Al-Hadith Bi Miqdar Al-Mansoukh min Al-Hadith” by Ibn Al-Jawzi, and others.

This is also what is mentioned by the commentators and explainers of prophetic traditions in their books, such as: Ibn ‘Abd Al-Bar in “Al-Tamheed” and “Al-Istizkar”, Ibn Hajar in “Fath Al-Bari”, Al-‘Ieni in “‘Umdat Al-Qari”, Ibn Daqeeq Al-Eid in “Al-Ihkam”, and Ibn Al-‘Arabi in “Al-Qabas”.

This is also what is declared by the people of Fiqh in their books, such as: Al-Nawawi in his “Majmou’”, Ibn Qudamah in “Al-Mughni”, Al-Kasani in “Badaai’ Al-Sanaii”, and Ibn Rushd in “Bidayat Al-Mujtahid”.

And it is also what is stated by the compilers of the Sunnah, such as: Al-Bukhari, the authors of the Sunan, Abi ‘Awanah, Ibn Khuzaima, Ibn Hibban, Al-Bayhaqi, Al-Tahawi, and others.

It is also what is declared by the four Imams in their books.

Thus, this matter is the view held by the Scholars of Hadith, Fiqh, Tafseer, and Usool…

As for Consensus:

The consensus [about this matter] was transmitted by more than one [scholar], as it is the consensus of the companions where no one from among them rejected this, and [this consensus] was transmitted by Ibn Al-Hamam in Al-Tahrir (Tayseer Al-Tahrir 3/181).

Al-Bajy said: “All the Muslims are on the view of the possibility of abrogation” (Ahkam Al-Fusool p. 391).

Al-Shawkani said: “Abrogation is possible by common sense, and has occurred in reality with no dispute in this between the Muslims, except what was narrated from Abi Muslim Al-Asfahani” (Irshad Al-Fuhool p. 276).

And refer to: Sharh Tanqeeh Al-Fusool (p.303), Ham’ Al-Jawami’ Bisharh Al-Muhala (2/88), Al-‘Adad ‘Ala ibn Al-Hajib (2/188), Nihayat Al-Sawl (2/167), Sharh Al-Kawkab Al-Muneer (3/535), Al-Muswadah (p.195), Usool Al-Sarkhasi (2/54-55), Al-Wusool ila Al-Sawl by ibn Burhan (2/14-15), Al-Ibhaaj fee Sharh Al-Minhaj (2/249).

As For [it being] Common Sense and Rationally Acceptable:

1) It is said that scholars had agreed that rulings of the sharee’ah have a reasoning behind them that can be explained by the benefit and the interest [arising from them], and these benefits can change, such that something might be of benefit at one time, but not another, and the actions of Allah – the all Mighty – have a good reason behind them, and nothing is done by Him except what has a wisdom behind it and a benefit to His slaves.

2) There is nothing rational that would prevent the changing of rulings and their abrogation. And if there is nothing that would prevent such a thing, then this would imply possibility.

3) That the Islamic sharee’ah had abrogated the sharee’ahs of all those that were before us, and whoever attests to this should also attest that abrogation is possible within our own sharee’ah.

As for rejecting Abrogation, it was transmitted only from Abu muslim Al-Asfahani, who was from the Mu’tazilah, and the authenticity of this about him is differed upon:

– It was said that this is not true about him.

– It was also said that he just rejected calling it that, rather he calls it takhsees (making it specific) not naskh (abrogation). Thus this dispute is only in wordings not on its permissibility.

It was also said, that if what is transmitted about him is true, and he rejected abrogation itself (not just the wording), then his opinion is considered Shaaz [odd, and is] against the Book of Allah, the Sunnah, and the consensus of the Muslims that were before him. Abu Al-Husien Al-Basri, who was a Mu’tazilate like Abi Muslim, said: “The Muslims agreed that it is fit for the rulings to be abrogated, except for a strange narration of a few who [claimed that] such thing is not befitting” (Al-Mu’tamad 1/370).

Al-Shawkani said: “Abrogation is rationally acceptable, and has occurred in reality with no dispute in this between the Muslims, except what was narrated from Abi Muslim Al-Asfahani, where he said that it is rationally acceptable, but never actually occurred. Now, if that is authentic about him, it would demonstrate that he is ignorant about this sharee’ah in an outrageous way. What is even stranger than this is what was narrated about him of the dispute in the books of the sharee’ah, [if that is true, then this would lead to ignoring, any dispute that arise from him] because the dispute of those who attained scholarship is the one that we take into consideration, not the dispute of those whose ignorance reached this level” (Irshad Al-Fuhool p.276).

As for the evidences for this strange opinion (the rejecter’s opinion):

From among the proofs of this Shaaz (odd) opinion (of the rejecters):

1) That Allah says in the Quran: {Falsehood (Baatil) cannot approach it from before it or from behind it; [it is] a revelation from a [Lord who is] Wise and Praiseworthy} (41:42).

The point they are trying to make is Allah the Exalted stated that no falsehood can approach the Quran, thus if abrogation was possible than falsehood would have approached it.

It was replied to them that the meaning of falsehood here is lies, corruptions, and alterations similar to what happened to the previous Books, thus the above verse would agree with what Allah said in another verse: {Indeed, it is We who sent down the message [i.e. the Quran], and indeed, We will be its guardian}(15:9).

It is also said that what is meant by falsehood in the verse is Satan, and that he would be incapable of adding or removing anything from it.

……

Ibn Jarir Al-Tabari said in his Tafseer about the verse: “And the most correct of these views according to us, that its meaning is: One of falsehood is incapable of altering it with all his plots and conspiracies, or changing any of its meanings, and that is what is meant by ‘approaching it from before it’, or making any addition in it, and that is what is meant by ‘approaching it from behind it’”.

2) They said: Saying that abrogation is permissible, would lead to saying that Bidaa’ is possible on Allah the all-Mighty (i.e. means that He ruled something, then discovered something He didn’t know before, so He changed his ruling), and since we must exalt Allah from such a thing, that would prohibit the occurrence of abrogation.

What they mean by Bidaa’ is for something to appear and become apparent after it was hidden, and that is not the case except for He who was ignorant of the thing before it was made clear to him and apparent.

The answer to their claim is:

That Allah – the most High and Exalted – had decreed the first ruling, while knowing that He will abrogate it with the second. He the All-Mighty had already known what was and what is to be, and His knowledge had encompassed all things, thus there is no Bidaa’ here [to Allah], rather this Bidaa’ happened to us when we knew about the second ruling after its revelation.

September 19, 2007

who wrote the treaty of Hudaibiyah?

Filed under: General — Um Abdullah M. @ 6:57 pm

 Writer of the Treaty of Hudaibiya

Sahih Muslim
Book 019, Number 4403:
It has been narrated on the authority of Bara’ who said: When the Prophet (may peace be upon him) was checked from going to the Ka’ba, the people of Mecca made peace with him’on the condition that he would (be allowed to) enter Mecca (next year) and stay there for three days, that he would not enter (the city) except with swords in their sheaths and arms encased in their covers, that he would not take eway with him anyone from its dwellers, nor would he prevent anyone from those with him to stay on in Mecca (if he so desired). He said to ‘Ali: Write down the terms settled between us. (So ‘Ali wrote): In the name of Allah, most Gracious and most Merciful. This is what Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah, has settled (with the Meccans), The polytheists said to him: If we knew that thou art the Messenger of of Allah, we would follow you. But write: Muhammad b. ‘Abdullah. So he told ‘Ali to strike out these words. ‘Ali said: No, by Allah, I will not strike them out. The Messenger of Allah (may Peace be upon him) said: Show me their place (on the parchment). So he (‘Ali) showed him their place and he (the Holy Prophet) struck them out; and he wrote: Ibn ‘Abdullah.(According to the terms of the treaty, next year) the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) stayed there for three days When it was the third day, they said to ‘Ali: This is the last day according to the terms of your companion. So tell him to leave. ‘Ali informed the Prophet (may peace be upon him) accordingly. He said: Yes, and left (the city). Ibn Janab in his version of the tradition used:” we would swear allegiance to you” instead of” we would follow you”.

The underlined bold part, they say that “he” in (and he wrote: Ibn ‘Abdullah) is the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam.

Now I will try to show in short simple points how this is not evidence that the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam wrote (Ibn Abdullah) and that “he” in (he wrote) would be Ali radiyallahu anhu and not the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam.

1_ In this same narration (underlined and italisized), the Prophet sallallaahu alayhi wa sallam asked Ali (radiyallahu anhu) to point out where he wrote “the messenger of Allah” so he could erase it, now if the Prophet sallallahu alayhi wa sallam knew how to write he would have been able to find the words himself, especially when only about 2 lines were written, but him asking Ali to point it out to him to erase it, shows that he didn’t know how to read.

2_ The word “kataba” means “wrote”, but can also mean “he ordered to write”, like when someone says “The king built this city”, meaning ordered for the city to be built, not that he built it with his own hands.
there are hadiths which say that the Prophet “kataba”, and in another narration of the same story or incident, it mentions him ordering someone to write, which explains that “kataba” in first narration means “he ordered someone to write”.

3_ There are other narrations that explain this narration, here are ones in sahih Bukhari and Muslim, of same incident:

Sahih al Bukhari
Volume 3, Book 50, Number 891:
Narrated Al-Miswar bin Makhrama and Marwan

(………This is a lengthy narration, so I only posted the part we are talking about ……..)

When Suhail bin Amr came, the Prophet said, “Now the matter has become easy.” Suhail said to the Prophet “Please conclude a peace treaty with us.” So, the Prophet called the clerk and said to him, “Write: By the Name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful.” Suhail said, “As for ‘Beneficent,’ by Allah, I do not know what it means. So write: By Your Name O Allah, as you used to write previously.” The Muslims said, “By Allah, we will not write except: By the Name of Allah, the most Beneficent, the most Merciful.” The Prophet said, “Write: By Your Name O Allah.” Then he dictated, “This is the peace treaty which Muhammad, Allah’s Apostle has concluded.” Suhail said, “By Allah, if we knew that you are Allah’s Apostle we would not prevent you from visiting the Kaba, and would not fight with you. So, write: “Muhammad bin Abdullah.” The Prophet said, “By Allah! I am Apostle of Allah even if you people do not believe me. Write (uktub) : Muhammad bin Abdullah.”
…..
http://www.usc.edu/dept/MSA/fundamen…i/050.sbt.html

In Sahih Muslim
Book 019, Number 4404:
It has been narrated on the authority of Anas that the Quraish made peace with the Prophet (may peace be upon him). Among them was Suhail b. Amr. The Prophet (may peace be upon him) said to ‘Ali: Write” In the name of Allah, most Gracious and most Merciful.” Suhail said: As for” Bismillah,” we do not know what is meant by” Bismillah-ir-Rahman-ir-Rahim” (In the name of Allah most Gracious and most Merciful). But write what we understand, i. e. Bi ismika allahumma (in thy name. O Allah). Then, the Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: Write:” From Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah.” They said: If we knew that thou welt the Messenger of Allah, we would follow you. Therefore, write your name and the name of your father. So the Holy Prophet (may peace be upon him) said: Write ” From Muhammad b. ‘Abdullah.”

So these narrations explain the first one, showing that “kataba” in that narration is refering to Ali radiyallahu anhu or that it means “he ordered to write”.

The Wisdom Behind Creating Evil, Iblees (Satan), Pain ..etc.

Filed under: General — Um Abdullah M. @ 6:08 pm

The Wisdom Behind Creating Evil, Iblees (Satan), Pain ..etc.

By Lorna Chepkwony

A student at AIU (American International University)

 

          In calamities, trials, tribulations, pain, disease there lies many benefits that vary in accordance to the individual and also vary in degrees of relevance.  Allah Subhanahu wa Taala tells us:

 

            Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope.  He gets reward for that (good) which he has earned, and he is punished for that (evil) which he has earned.

Surah Al-Baqarah:286

            With the onset of calamities comes the realization of the greatness of Allah’s Lordship and His all-encompassing power.  All of mankind is in need of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala and He is constantly engaged in fulfilling the needs of the entire creation.  He causes rain to fall in one part of the world and causes another part to experience severe drought – all this in a bid to test and try mankind to see who indeed will realize the might and power of the Most High and therefore worship Him alone.

 

            Humans are the slaves of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala and He is our Lord.  Servitude entails humility and dejection, although not all of mankind accepts this concept, especially not the arrogant and those who wallow in disbelief and ignorance.  It is to this that the saying of Allah aza wa jal, points to,

 

            Those who, when disaster strikes them, say, ‘we belong to Allah and to Him will we return’.

Surah Al-Baqarah:156

 

            They acknowledge that they belong to Him, that they are but lowly servants of His, that they will return to Him for judgment and are subject to His decree and regulation.  They know that there is no way of escape from Him nor is there any refuge except in Him.

 

            When one experiences hardship, the realization that he or she cannot suppress the hardship except by turning to Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala and acknowledging the fact that there is no one to depend on to remove it except Him, brings about  a sincerity for Allah, Subhanahu wa Ta’ala.

 

            And when they embark on a ship, they invoke Allah, making their Faith pure for Him only, but when He bring them safely to land, behold, they give a share of their worship to others.

Surah Al-‘Ankabut:65

            And when harm touches you upon the sea, those that you call upon vanish from you except Him (Allah Alone).  But when He brings you safe to land, you turn away (from Him).  And man is ever ungrateful.

Surah Al-Isra’:67

            Ibn Kathir in His Book of Tafsir as regards the above verse, (17:67) said: ‘Ikrimah bin Abu Jahl fled from Allah’s Messenger sallallahu alayhi wa sallam at the time when Makkah was conquered.  He rode over the Red Sea to cross over to Ethiopia, but as they proceeded, a heavy stormy wind overtook their boat, and huge waves came to them from all sides, and they thought that they are encircled therein.  The people of the boat said to one another: “None can save you except Allah.  So invoke Him (Allah)(by making your faith pure for Him Alone and none else) to deliver you safe (from drowning).”  ‘Ikrimah said to himself, “By Allah if none can benefit in the sea except Allah (Alone) then no doubt none can benefit over the land except Allah (Alone).  O Allah! I promise You that if you delivered me safe from this, I will go and put my hands in the hands of Prophet Muhammad and surely, I will find him full of pity, kindness and mercy.”  So they were delivered safe (by Allah), and returned to their seashore and came out of the sea. ‘Ikrimah then proceeded to Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, narrated his story, embraced Islam (just as he promised Allah), and became a perfect Muslim.  (Tafsir ibn Katheer).

            Facing calamities can cause one to turn to Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala in repentance – ‘rushing to do that which would please his Lord, turning back to Him at every moment and foremost in doing that which He loves’.1

            When harm touches man he calls upon his Lord, turning in repentance to Him.

Surah Az-Zumar:8

            Calling upon Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala is a mark of servitude and exemplifies it.  Submissiveness and supplication are a show of a person’s need of Allah and expresses his inability to change any matter himself or having any power or ability.

 

            Calamities can also bring about training in forbearance, the ranking of which differs in accordance to the magnitude of the calamity. A display of forbearance at the onset of the severest calamities is ranked highly as far as attaining the pleasure of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala for this is a manifestation of being pleased with whatever He, in His unquestionable Wisdom, has decreed.

 

            The patient and steadfast will be repaid their wages in full without reckoning.

Surah Az-Zumar:10

The Messenger of Allah sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said,

           

            None has been given a gift better and more encompassing than patience.2

            Endurance of trials and tribulations patiently brings about expiation of sins and errors.

 

            Any disaster that strikes you is through what your own hands have earned and He pardons much.

Surah ash-Shura:30

The Messenger of Allah, sallallahu alayhi wa sallam, said,

 

            The believer is not afflicted with illness or hardship, even if it be a worry that troubles him or a thorn that pricks him, except his sins would be expiated as a result of it.3

            Blessings are never truly appreciated until one loses them.  Thus when one is faced with hardship, he attains an understanding of the greatness of blessing of ease and well-being.  The companions of the garden in Surah Qalam lost their garden, a punishment from Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala for their failure to attribute their possessions as being a blessing from Allah and thought themselves to be self-sufficient.  When they lost the garden, they turned back to Allah – repenting to Him and hoping that He would replace it with something better.

 

            Tribulation and hardship prevents one from evil, vanity, boastfulness, arrogance and oppression. If Nimrod had been a poor, weak, blind and deaf person, he would never have argued with Ibrahim concerning His Lord; however, he was deceived by his sovereignity:

 

            What about the one who argued with Ibrahim about his Lord, on the basis that Allah had given him sovereignity?

Surah Al-Baqarah:258

Similarly, Pharaoh declared that he is the Lord of the Egyptians the Most High, until when he faced the wrath of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala which came in the form of drowning in the sea.  He uttered as such for he thought himself to be sovereign and he was only humbled when he faced a dire calamity.

 

            Shaytaan, who was evicted from Paradise for his disobedience of Allah out of sheer pride, is an enemy to mankind.  He whispers to him, causing weak man to divert from the obedience of his Lord.  If Allah thus guides man, he returns to Him in repentance, recognizing the attributes of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala of being oft-forgiving and the Most Merciful.  Some of the salaf used to say, “Indeed I am disobeying Allah!  I know this because of the behavior of my wife and livestock.”   When a slave falls into sin, one of the punishments is that they encourage the Shayateen to grow bold against the sinner and consequently, they bombard him, equipped with temptation, whispers, making him afraid and harm him.  They go forward in opposition to him, causing the servant to forget.  His well-being lies within remembering Allah and his destruction will be the result of his forgetting.

 

            Indeed the enmity between man and Shaytan is old, commencing from the time that Adam (aleyhi salaam) was created – from the time he was ordered to prostrate to him.  Shaytaan refused, became arrogant and hence disobeyed his Lord.  His arrogance and pride led him to commit a whole host of sins, it made him expend every effort in misleading the children of Adam and made him beautify and embellish sins such that they accepted them and eagerly committed them.  Due to this, Allah aza wa jal, revealed the Books, sent the Messengers and enjoined His servants to various laws and admonitions in order to secure them from the evil of Shaytan.  Two groups emerged: the guided and the misguided.  The groups who were guided are the inhabitants of Paradise and the group who were misguided are the inhabitants of the Hellfire, and Allah aza wa jal did not create anything in vain.

 

            The above few wisdoms and benefits behind the creating of evil in general, are some of what cause mankind to be tried and tested, the highest level of severity being experienced by the Prophets.  They were accused of being insane, ridiculed and mocked at, called poets and degraded.  The Prophets and the righteous have always faced trials and tribulations, with each person being tried in proportion to his religion.  Some of them would be sawn in half but this would not cause them to renegade from their faith.  We ask of Allah Subhanahu wa Ta’ala to make us steadfast on His religion.

 

 

 Footnotes

1ibn al-Qayyim, Madarij as-Salikin[1/467]

2Bukhari [#1429] and Muslim [#1053] on the authority of Abu Said al-Khudri

3Bukhari [#5641] and Muslim [#2573]

 

Sources

v     The Noble Qur’an

v     Tafseer ibn Katheer

v     Trials and Tribulations, wisdom and benefits by al-Imam al-‘Izz bin ‘Abdi-s-Salam with an appendix from the work of ibn al Qayyim

v     The Decisive criterion between the Friends of Allah and the friends of Shaytan by Ibn Taymiyyah

v     Sins and their punishments by Ibnul Qayyim al-Jawziyyah
 

© Copyright, you don’t have permission to copy the article without mentioning the author.

 

August 8, 2007

Sunnah & Hadith recorded during time of the Prophet (S.A.W) & during time of Sahabah (companions)

Filed under: Beginner, General, Hadith-Hadeeth — Um Abdullah M. @ 9:42 pm

The following are just some examples and not everything that was recording during that time.


A- What has been written by the command of the Prophet peace be upon him

1- The books of the Prophet peace be upon that were written to the kings and rulers of his era.

The Prophet peace be upon him sent numerous books to the kings of the Arabs and non Arabs of his era, inviting them to Islam and showing them the foundations of the creed of this new religion, and the texts of these books have been discovered in several hadith records and historical books. And the most famous of these books are:

His book to Heraclius, Emperor of Byzantine
His book to Chosroes, King of Persia
His book to Muqawqas, the king of Egypt
His book to Negus, the king of Abyssinia
His book to the King of Oman
His book to ‘Eyaahala, King of Humayr
His book to Hilal, Governor of Bahrain
His book to Al Haarith ibn Abi Shamar, King of the Ghassanids

2. The Treaties, Covenants, and Agreements

The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, ordered a number of these treaties to be written according to need, and among those are:

– The agreement with the tribe of Dhamrah upon their security and the safety of their individuals and property in return for their assistance in repelling the enemies from Madeenah, and that is in the 1st year Hijri (abbreviated as. H.)
– The treaty with the tribe of Ghatfaan during the course of the battle of Khandaq (the trench) in year 8 H.
– The treaty of Hudaibiyah between the Muslims and the Kuffaar of Quraish, the year 6 H.
– The treaty between the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessings be upon him, and the ruler of Doomat Al-Jandal, the year 9 H.
– A peace treaty with the people of Aylah during the course of The Battle of Tabook.
– The peace treaty with the tribe of Baariq when they visited the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him.
– The peace treaty with the tribe of Aslam regarding cooperation against the external enemies of both sides.
– A treaty of alliance with the tribe of Juhainah.
– A peace agreement with Bani Habeebah.
– The treaty with Thaqeef.
– The treaty with Bani Ghaffaar.
– The treaty sent to the people of Jarbaa’ and Athrah and some of them came and visited the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, the year 9 H.
– The treaty with the Christians of Najraan regarding protecting them and their obligation of paying the Jizyah (taxes).
– The paper of treaty between the Jews in Madeenah in the beginning of the Hijrah.

3. The Agreements, the Decisions of Pardoning, and Giving Lands

A number of documents have been written by the order of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, among them are:

– The pardoning of Suraqah Bin Maalik
– His agreement with Al-Azraq bin `Umar regarding his residence in Makkah and his right of marriage to Quraish.
– The contract of giving Zaid Al-Khair some lands.
– The contract of giving Tameem Ad-Daari some lands.
– The contract of giving some land to `Abbaas As-Sulami (or Silmee?)
– The contract of giving some lands that have water springs and trees and palm trees to `Aqeel bin Ka`b.
– The contract of giving a farm to Riqaad bin Rabee`ah in Yemen.
– The contract of giving the tribe of Bani Qushair some lands.
– The contract that has the righst and obligations of Wafd bin Qais.
– The contract of giving Bilaal bin Al-Haarith Al-Mazani some farms of the tribe.

4. The writing of speeches and varying Ahadeeth, such as:

– The writing of Khutbah (speech of) Al-Wadaa` by Abee Shaah, and it is narrated in the Saheehain (Bukhari and Muslim).
– The writing of a Hadeeth by `Utbaan bin Maalik,as in Musnad Ahmad (a collection of hadiths) and others.

B. the writers of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him (1).

 The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, had a group of writers that reached sixty writers, and they had different specialization:

1. The writers of the Holy Qur’an when it was revealed unto the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him.
2. The writers of what the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, orders.
3. The writers of the letters to the kings and leaders.
4. The writers of treaties, pacts, trusts and other than that.
5. The writers of correspondence with the Arabs.
6. The writers of the religious matters.
7. The writers of the records of battles and war-spoils.
8. The writers who write what is between the people from agreements and actions.
9. The writers who replace the regular writers of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, once they are absent.

C. What the Sahabah (companions of the Prophet) wrote during the time of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him:A number of Sahaabah have recorded hadeeths from the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, with the purpose of memorization or taking benefit from it, and among those:1. The genuine journal of `Abdullaah bin `Amr bin Al-`Aass, and it contained one-thousand Hadeeths.
2. The books of Sa`d bin `Ubaadah.
3. The book of Mu`aath bin Jabal.
4. The book of Abee Raafi`, the supporter of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him.
5. The journal of `Ali bin Abee Taalib.
6. The journal of Jaabir bin `Abdullaah Al-Ansaari.
__________________________________________________ ______________
Footnote:
(1) Kuttaab Al-Wahi by Dr. Ahmad `Abdur-Rahmaan `Eesa, and Kuttaab An-Nabi, Salla-llaahu `alaihi wa sallam, by Al-A`dhami.

Examples of the writings of the Sahaabah

1. The book of Abu Bakr, may Allaah be pleased with him, to Anas bin Maalik, his worker in Bahrain, which begins with, “In the name of Allaah, the most merciful, the giver of mercy: This is the obligation of charity that the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessings be upon him, ordered with, and what Allaah ordered His slave with”, and it is a long Hadeeth that was collected by al-Bukhari and others.

2. The book of `Umar, may Allaah be pleased with him, to `Utbah bin Farqad, his worker on Bahrain, Imaam Ahmad narrated from Abi `Uthmaan an-Nuhdi, who said, “We were with `Utbah bin Farqad, so `Umar wrote to him things narrating from the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him..
And it was found in the base of `Umar’s sword a journal about the charity of as-Sawaa’im (1).

3. and al-Baraa’ bin `Aazib used to narrate Hadiths to the Taabi`een and they used to write his Hadeeth from the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him; for on the authority of `Abdullaah bin Khanees he said, “I saw them with al-Baraa’ writing on their hands with cane.” (2)

4. And Anas bin Maalik used to dictate the Hadeeths to his students, until if the people overwhelmed him, he brought some journals of books and he layed them, and then he said, “These are hadeeths that I have heard and written from the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessings be upon him, and I showed them to him.” (3)

5. And `Abdullaah bin Mas`ood had a book that has hadeeths, and it was with his son after that, for on the authority of Ma`n he said, “`Abdur-Rahmaan bin `Abdullaah bin Mas`ood brought out a book and he swore that it was the handwriting of his father.” (4)

6. And Mu`aawiyah bin Abee Sufyaan wrote to al-Mugheerah bin Shu`bah and said, “Write to me with something that you heard from the Messenger of Allaah, peace and blessings be upon him, so al-Mugheerah wrote to him [and mentioned], ‘That he (the Prophet, salla-llaahu `alaihi wa sallam) used to forbid Qeel and Qaal (gossip), asking many questions, and wasting money.” (5)

7. And al-Hasan bin `Ali used to tell his children and his brother’s children, “Learn, Learn, for indeed you are the youngsters of today’s people, and tomorrow you will be their elders, so whoever from among you does not memorize then let him write and keep it (meaning the writing) in his house.” (7)

8. And Ibn `Abbaas had some boards that he used to write on Hadeeths from the Sahaabah, and he ended up with a collection of many books and journals, and Salmaa, the wife of Abee Raafi`, the supporter of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said : “I have seen `Abdullaah Ibn `Abbaas come to my husband, Abee Raafi`, carrying wooden boards to write [on them] the hadeeths of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him.” (8) 9.  Ibn `Umar had some books; he would not come out of his house before looking at them. (9)10.  Samrah bin Jundub had a copy that had many hadeeths, that arrived with his son, Sulaimaan, and [as well as] al-Hasan al-Basree, and both of them narrated from it. (10)11. Sa`d bin `Ubaadah was one of those who obtained the nickname of “Kaamil” (complete man) in Madeenah before Islaam because of his knowledge in writing, and he had recorded many hadeeths in a book, and his son narrated from it. (11)12. Mu`aath bin Jabal had a book that contained some hadeeths, it ended up in the possession of Ibn `Aa’ith, and he had another book that went to Musa bin Talhah” (12)13. And Abee Raafi`, the supporter of the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, had a book that had hadeeths, he gave it to Abi Bakr bin `Abdur-Rahmaan bin Hishaam. (13) 14. And Ka`b bin `Amr had a collection of Hadeeth journals. (14)

15. The books of Abu Hurairah, may Allaah be pleased with him:
Abu Hurairah passed through two phases with regards to writing Sunnah, for he was abstaining in the beginning, and later he began writing, and in his house were many books; a number of his students narrated from him, such as Hammaam bin Munabbih and Muhammad bin Sireen and Sa`eed al-Maqbaree, and others. (15)

16. And Jaabir bin `Abdullaah had a journal that `Abdur-Razzaaq benefited from in his Musannaf . (16)

17. And Raafi` bin Khadeej had a collection of written Ahadeeth. (18)

18. And Sham`oon al-Azdee had journals that had his Hadeeths in them, and it is said that he is the first one who wrote on the surface of paper. (19)

These are examples from eighteen Sahaabis who wrote Ahadeeth, and it is enough proof of the many writings of the Sahaabah, and whoever wanted to examine he would find many [examples] other than these.

————————————-
1.  al-Kifaayah, 353
2. Jaami` Bayaan al-`Ilm, 1/81
3. Taareekh Baghdaad, 8/258
4. Jaami` Bayaan al-`Ilm, 1/42
5. Al-Bukhari Ma` al-Fat-h, 4/104, Hadeeth number (abbr. Ha.), 1477
7. Al-Kifaayah, 229, Taqyeed al-`Ilm, 1/91
8. Tabaqaat Ibn Sa`d, 2/123, and look to Saheeh Muslim, 1/7, and al-Kifaayah, 384
9. Al-Aadaab Ash-Shar`iyyah, 2/125
10. Tabaqaat Ibn Sa`d, 7/115, and, Tathkirah al-Huffaadh, 2/268, 4/236
11. Al-Umm, 7/112, and, Mashaaheer `Ulamaa’ al-Amsaar, 130
12. Musnad Ahmad, 5/228, and, Seerah Ibn Hishaam, 886, 956
13. Al-Kifaayah, 39
14. Look to: Dalaa’il at-Tawtheeq al-Mubkir, 425
15. Look to: Saheefat Hammaam, 27, and, Dalaa’il at-Tawtheeq, 436
16. Look to: Saheefat Hammaam, 27, and, Sunan At-Tirmithee, 6/52
18. Dalaa’il at-Tawtheeq, 452
19. Al-Isaabah, 2/156

 

Translated from “Hujjiyat as Sunnah” by Dr Houcine Chouat, with slight editing.

July 23, 2007

Cursing is prohibited

Filed under: Beginner, General — Um Abdullah M. @ 1:47 pm


Muslims should neither curse nor imprecate each other with words such as, ‘May the Curse of Allah be upon you,’ or ‘I wish you to burn in Hell-fire,’ etc.
Narrated Samurah Ibn Jundub (radhi allahu anhu), ‘Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, ‘Do not curse one another, invoking curse of Allah or Wrath of Allah or the fire of Hell.’ [Abu Dawood, at-Tirmidhee]

To curse a Muslim is akin to killing him. Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, ‘Cursing a believer is like murdering him.’ [Agreed upon]The act of cursing is such that one who does it can himself become a recipient of it.

Narrated Abu Darda (radhi allahu anhu), ‘Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, ‘When a person curses (La’nah; to ask that something be deprived of Allah’s Mercy) somebody or something, the curse goes up to the heaven and the gates of the heaven are closed. Then it comes down to the earth and its gates are closed. Then it turns right and left, and if it does not find an entrance to go anywhere, it returns to the person or thing that was cursed, if he or it deserves to be cursed; otherwise, it returns to the person, who uttered it.’ [Abu Dawood] Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) also warned, ‘Those who frequently resort to cursing would neither be accepted as witnesses nor as intercessors on the Day of Resurrection.’ [Saheeh Muslim]


It is not allowed to curse, disgrace or humiliate even a sinner because in doing so, one helps the Shaytan, who is avowed to disgrace and humiliate Muslims before Allah. Narrated Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu), ‘A drunkard was brought to the Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam). He (r) said, ‘Give him a beating.’ Then some beat him with their hands, some with their shoes, and some with (a folded) piece of cloth. When he left, someone said to him, ‘May Allah disgrace you!‘ The Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, ‘Do not help Shaytan overcome him by uttering such words.’ [Saheeh al-Bukharee]

Moreover, it is incorrect to curse a sinner because perhaps, the person may have sought Istagfar (seek forgiveness for one’s sins) and Allah, the All-Forgiving, may have forgiven the person for his transgression. It is related in Saheeh Muslim that during the time of Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam), when a woman was being punished for the sin of adultery, her blood spurted upon Khalid Ibn Waleed (radhi allahu anhu), who swore at her. Thereupon, the Prophet (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, ‘Khalid, be gentle. By Him, in Whose Hand is my life, she has made such a repentance that even if a wrongful tax collector were to repent, he would have been forgiven.’ He (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) then prayed over her and she was buried. Therefore, the right conduct would be to pray for his or her guidance and refrain from any critique, cursing or humiliation.

Even the deceased Muslims should not be censured or condemned for their wrongdoings, for, they have reached their end and they are receiving the return of their deeds in the Hereafter. Aa’isha (radhi allahu anha) narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, ‘Do not abuse the dead, because they have attained that which they had forwarded (i.e., their deeds, good or bad).’ [Saheeh al-Bukharee]

Taunting is prohibited
Taunting is to insult, reproach mockingly or disgrace someone, for e.g. with reference to his lineage, appearance or shortcoming. Narrated Ibn Mas’ood (radhi allahu anhu), ‘Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, ‘A true believer is not involved in taunting, or frequently cursing or in indecency or abusing.” [At-Tirmidhee]
Abusing is prohibited
Narrated Abu Hurayrah (radhi allahu anhu), ‘Allah’s Messenger (sallallahu aliahi wa-sallam) said, ‘When two persons indulge in abusing each other, the beginner will be the sinner, so long, as the oppressed does not transgress the limits.’ [Saheeh Muslim]
This Hadeeth tells us that if a Muslim abuses another and says unfair things about him and in return, the recipient also abuses him and says unfair things to the same extent, then the entire burden of the sin of abusing lies upon the person who initiated the quarrel. However, if the one, who is wronged, exceeds the limits in revenge, then he will also be guilty to the degree of his excess. Thus, even though, revenge is permissible, it is better to forgive and be patient

Taken from As-Sunnah Newsletter

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